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  • fgf receptor inhibitor In psychology previous studies have c

    2018-10-25

    In psychology, previous studies have categorized individual cognitive patterns using factor index scores in typically developing children (Donders, 1996; Glutting et al., 1994), as well as in clinically referred children or children with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, traumatic fgf receptor inhibitor injury, or attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Allen et al., 1991; Donders and Warschausky, 1997; Hale et al., 2013; Mayes and Calhoun, 2004, 2006; Siegel et al., 1996; Waxman and Casey, 2006). The number of subtypes has been varied from 3 to 8 according to the characteristics of participants or versions of the WISC. Glutting et al. (1994), who investigated the pattern of factor index scores combined with the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test of composite scores, revealed six subtypes within 824 typically developing children and found that the six subtypes were characterized by general performance level (above-average, average, and below-average) and the discrepancy of sub-scores. Similarly, Donders (1996) clarified five subtypes within 2200 children from WISC-III standardization samples. Three out of the five subtypes were featured by the performance levels (above-average, average, and below-average overall performance levels), and the remaining two were featured by performance patterns. The results of Glutting et al. (1994) and Donders (1996) suggest that cognitive patterns can be classified into subtypes on the basis of general performance level and the discrepancy of factor index scores, even in typically developing children. The relationship between brain structure and IQ has been reported by several previous studies. Regarding the neural basis of cognitive functions, several studies have found the correlation between composite scores of the WISCs or Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAISs) and brain size and between volume or thickness of cortical areas and white matter integrity in normal populations (Burgaleta et al., 2014; Haier et al., 2004; Jung and Haier, 2007; Lee et al., 2006; Sowell et al., 2001; Sowell et al., 2004). Willerman et al. (1991) examined the relationship between brain size and intelligence, demonstrating positive correlation between IQ scores and brain size. Wilke et al. (2003) investigated 146 children (age range: 5–18 years), revealing a tendency for the correlation between FSIQ and global gray matter volume and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the anterior cingulate cortex. Frangou et al. (2004) examined 40 young participants (mean age of 14.26 years), revealing a significant positive correlation between FSIQ and rGMV in the cerebellum, orbitofrontal cortex, thalamus, cingulate, and precuneus and a significant negative correlation in the caudate nucleus. Haier et al. (2004) found correlations among rGMV within frontal (Brodmann areas (BA) 10, 46, 9), temporal (BA 21, 37, 42), parietal (BA 43, 3), and occipital (BA 19) lobes in adolescents and adults. From the results of previous findings, rGMV and the frontal, temporal, and parietal regions are positively correlated with FSIQ. Furthermore, the previous studies on cortical thickness revealed that brain regions that positively correlated with FSIQ include areas in the frontal (inferior, anterior, or superior), temporal (anterior, superior), and parietal cortices (Burgaleta et al., 2014; Choi et al., 2008; Karama et al., 2013; Margolis et al., 2013; Narr et al., 2007).
    Methods
    Results
    Discussion When considering the brain imaging results, the larger volume of the right middle temporal gyrus in C3 indicated generally lower performance in VIQ, PIQ, and factor index scores in WISC than other subtypes. This result is consistent with previous neuroimaging studies of brain maturation in typically developing children. Previous studies on the maturation of brain structure consistently showed a reduction in gray matter volume in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices along with the age (Chugani, 1998; Gogtay et al., 2004; Taki et al., 2011). In particular, the peak volume of the temporal cortex occurred between 10 and 12 years (Taki et al., 2011). Consistent with these results, C3 children appeared under-developed when compared with children in other subtypes. Conversely, C2 and C4 children had smaller volume in the right middle temporal gyrus and higher performance levels in VIQ and PIQ than other subtypes and were interpreted to suggest that brain structure was more mature in these children than the other subtypes.